Foreign concerns include overseas entities performing work under U.S. Government contracts as either prime contractors or subcontractors. In 2011, a final rule was issued which expanded CAS applicability to foreign concerns. Historically exempt from standards in many cases, foreign concerns, when applicable, now have to comply with CAS 401, 402 and requirements for disclosing and complying with their cost accounting practices. Foreign concerns need to ensure they understand their requirements and find practical ways to comply. In some cases, particularly subcontractors, awareness may be limited on the significant requirements within these standards. RKI has assisted foreign concerns with designing effective cost accounting practices and related compliance initiatives for complying with these newly applicable requirements.